1960 PHOTO ALBUM AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIER 11 1/2 X 15 3/4 61 PHOTOS MADE GERMANY

1960 PHOTO ALBUM AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIER 11 1/2 X 15 3/4 61 PHOTOS MADE GERMANY

AN EXTREMELY RARE PHOTO ALBUM OF ROBERT DANIEL PARKER JR.  ER 52 476 901 SPECIALIST FOUR E-4 REGULAR ARMY  AND ER 52 476 901. THIS PHOTOS ALBUM IS MADE IN GERMANY BY  KEK AND INCLUDES 61 PHOTOS AND 2 HONORABLE DISCHARGES FROM DEC 31, 1964 AND DEC 28TH, 1960. Photos depict action shots, soldiers with guns, tanks, and other fantastic imagery. Sample images are shownSpecialist (abbreviated "SPC") is a military rank in some countries' armed forces. In the United States military, it is one of the four junior enlisted ranks in the U.S. Army, above private first class and equivalent in pay grade to corporal. Unlike corporals, specialists are not considered junior non-commissioned officers (NCOs). Specialist E-4 is the most common rank that is held by US Army soldiers.[1]Contents  [hide] 1 U.S. Army1.1 Trades and specialties (1902–1920)1.2 Private/specialist (1920–1942)1.3 Technician (1942–1948)1.4 Specialist (1955–present)1.5 Recruits with college degrees and Officer Candidates2 United States Navy (1941–1974)2.1 Specialists (1941–1948)2.1.1 Specialties (1942–1948)[11]2.2 Emergency Service ratings (1948–1974)3 References4 External linksU.S. Army[edit]Trades and specialties (1902–1920)[edit]USA zvania 1914.gifIn 1920, the Army rank and pay system received a major overhaul. All enlisted and non-commissioned ranks were reduced from 128 different insignias and several pay grades to only seven rank insignias and seven pay grades, which were numbered in seniority from seventh grade (lowest) to first grade (highest). The second grade had two rank titles: first sergeant, which was three stripes, two rockers, and a lozenge (diamond) in the middle; and technical sergeant, which was three stripes and two rockers. By World War II, the rank of first sergeant had been elevated to first grade and a third rocker was added, with the lozenge in the center to distinguish it from master sergeant. The wearing of specialist badges inset in rank insignia was abolished, and a generic system of chevrons and arcs replaced them.[2]Private/specialist (1920–1942)[edit]From 1920 to 1942, there was a rank designated "private/specialist" (or simply, "specialist") that was graded in six classes (the lowest being sixth class and the highest being first class). They were considered the equal of a private first class (Pfc.), but drew additional specialist pay in relationship to the specialist level possessed on top of their base Pfc. (grade six) pay. The classes only indicated competency, not authority, and a private/specialist did not outrank a Pfc.Officially, specialists wore the single chevron of a Pfc., because no special insignia was authorized to indicate their rank. Unofficially, a private/specialist could be authorized, at his commander's discretion, to wear one to six additional rockers (one rocker for sixth class, and a maximum of six rockers for first class) under their rank chevron to denote specialty level.Technician (1942–1948)[edit]1st grade 2nd grade 3rd grade 4th grade 5th grade 6th grade 7th gradeUS Army WWII 1SGT.svg US Army WWII MSGT.svg US Army WWII TSGT.svg US Army WWII SSGT.svg US Army WWII T3C.svg US Army WWII SGT.svg US Army WWII T4C.svg US Army WWII CPL.svg US Army WWII T5C.svg US Army WWII PFC.svg No InsigniaFirst sergeant Master sergeant Technical sergeant Staff sergeant Technician Third Grade Sergeant Technician Fourth Grade Corporal Technician Fifth Grade Private first class Private1st Sgt. M/Sgt. T/Sgt. S/Sgt. T/3. Sgt. T/4. Cpl. T/5. Pfc. Pvt.On 8 January 1942, the rank of technician was introduced to replace the private/specialist rank, which was discontinued by 30 June 1942. This gave technical specialists more authority by grading them as non-commissioned officers rather than senior enlisted personnel. They were parallel to pay grades of the time, going up in seniority from technician fifth grade, technician fourth grade, and technician third grade. A technician was paid according to his grade, and was senior to the next lowest pay grade; however, he was outranked by the corresponding non-commissioned officer grade and had no direct supervisory authority (that is, that of a private) outside of his specialty. To reduce the confusion this caused in the field, an embroidered "T" insignia was authorized for wear under the chevrons on 4 September 1942. The rank was finally discontinued on 1 August 1948.Specialist (1955–present)[edit]E9 E8 E7 E6 E5 E4E-9 - SPC9.PNG E-8 - SPC8.PNG E-7 - SPC7.PNG E-6 - SPC6.PNG E-5 - SPC5.PNG Army-USA-OR-04b.svgSpecialist 9 rank insignia (U.S. Army) Specialist 8 rank insignia (U.S. Army) Master Specialist / Specialist 7 rank insignia (U.S. Army) Specialist 1st Class / Specialist 6 rank insignia (U.S. Army) Specialist 2nd Class / Specialist 5 rank insignia (U.S. Army) Specialist 3rd Class / Specialist 4 /Specialist rank insignia (U.S. Army)Spec/9 (1959–1968) Spec/8 (1959–1968) MSP(1955–1959)Spec/7(1959–1978) SP1(1955–1959)Spec/6(1959–1985) SP2(1955–1959)Spec/5(1959–1985) SP3(1955–1959)Spec/4(1959–1985)SPC(1985 – present)Specialist 5 Dwight H. Johnson receiving the Medal of Honor from President JohnsonPresident Johnson presenting a then-Specialist Six Lawrence Joel with Medal of Honor and CertificatePhoto of a U.S. Army Specialist 7On 1 July 1955, four grades of specialist were established: Specialist Third Class (E-4 or SP3), Specialist Second Class (E-5 or SP2), Specialist First Class (E-6 or SP1), and Master Specialist (E-7 or MSP). The insignia was yellow on a dark blue background. It was the same smaller size as women's NCO stripes - to differentiate Specialists from NCOs, they were the same shape as NCO stripes - but were inverted to distinguish them, and the General Service Army Eagle was set in the center. The senior specialist ranks of SP2 (E5), SP1 (E6), and MSP (E7) were indicated by one, two, or three yellow arcs over the Eagle, respectively.In 1956 the Army Green uniform was adopted. The enlisted stripes were changed from yellow on a blue backing to Goldenlite Yellow on a green backing. The specialist insignia was redesigned to be larger, broader, and more rounded.In 1958 the DoD added two additional pay grades to give enlisted soldiers more opportunities to progress to a full career with additional opportunities for promotion. Thus the recognition was changed to six specialist ranks, and the pay grade was tied into the rank designation: specialist four (E-4), specialist five (E-5), specialist six (E-6), specialist seven (E-7), specialist eight (E-8), and specialist nine (E-9).[3] The "Super Grades" of Spec./8 and Spec./9 were respectively given one and two Goldenlite chevrons below the Eagle.CSM Daniel K. Elder goes on to explain, "In 1968 when the Army added the rank of command sergeant major, the specialist ranks at E-8 and E-9 were abolished",[3] because they were notional rather than actual. "In 1978 the specialist rank at E-7 was discontinued and in 1985, the specialist ranks at E-5 and E-6 were discontinued."[3]These specialist ranks were created to reward personnel with higher degrees of experience and technical knowledge. Appointment to either specialist or non-commissioned officer status was determined by military occupational specialty (MOS). Different military occupational specialties had various transition points. For example, in the band career field (excluding special bands at D.C. and West Point), a bandsman could not achieve non-commissioned officer status until pay grade E-6 was attained. In some military occupational specialties, a soldier was appointed either a specialist or non-commissioned officer depending on which particular position or "slot" that he filled in his organization. A cook was a specialist, while a mess steward held the rank of sergeant (E-5 through E-7).Specialist grades paralleled the corresponding grades of non-commissioned officer (E-4 through E-7) only in terms of pay. The specialist grades, although they outranked the enlisted grades (E-1 to E-3), were outranked by all non-commissioned officers (E-4 to E-9) and lacked the authority conferred on an NCO. This is the major differentiation between a specialist and a "hard striper".When the so-called "super grades" (E-8 and E-9) were introduced in 1958, the specialist grade titles were changed to specialist four through specialist seven, and the new grades specialist eight and specialist nine were added.The Medal of Honor was awarded to SP4 Michael J. Fitzmaurice by President Richard Nixon at the White House, 15 October 1973.Only the lowest specialist grade survives today, as the higher grades were gradually phased out. Specialist 8 and specialist 9 were eliminated in 1968.[4] Specialist 7 was abolished in 1978 and specialist 5 and specialist 6 in 1985. At that time, the rank of specialist 4 simply became known as "specialist," which is how it is referred to today. While the official abbreviation was changed from "SP4" to "SPC" upon the elimination of the SP5 and SP6 ranks, the SIDPERS database was initially authorized to continue using SP4 until such time as the change could be made at little or no additional expense in conjunction with other system upgrades.[5] The continued use of SP4 on automatically produced documents (transfer orders, leave and earnings statements, unit manning reports, inter alia), hampered the adoption of the new abbreviation (and, to a lesser extent, the absence of "-4" in the non-abbreviated rank) by individual soldiers who viewed the computer-produced documents as the final word on what the proper term was.Today, the rank of specialist is the typical rank to which privates first class are promoted after two years of service, although PFCs may be waived into the rank of specialist after 18 months' time in service and six months' time in grade. It is granted far more often than corporal (E-4), which is now reserved for personnel who have either passed the Basic Leader Course or have been assigned low-level supervisory duties (with two or more soldiers under direct command).Specialists were informally called "specs" (pronunciation IPA: /ˈspɛk/ ) plus the numerical grade of their rank. Thus, a specialist 4 was called "spec 4".[6][7] As of July 2016 the rank of Specialist is the most common rank in the U.S. Army, being held by 115,033 of the Army's 473,844 soldiers.[1]This force wide prevalence has led to the humorous description of this pay grade as the "E-4/Spec4 Mafia".[8]Recruits with college degrees and Officer Candidates[edit]New recruits enlisting into the United States Army who have earned a four-year degree, and as of 2006 those with civilian-acquired job skills, will enter as a Specialist (Pay Grade E4).[9] Typically, newly recruited officer candidates hold the rank of specialist when enlisted and during BCT (basic combat training) prior to their official enrollment into OCS (Officer Candidate School) where they will be administratively promoted to the pay grade of E-5 but hold a rank of officer candidate (OC), not sergeant (SGT).United States Navy (1941–1974)[edit]Specialists (1941–1948)[edit]Between 1941 and 1948, the United States Navy maintained an enlisted rate of Specialist in the petty officer pay grade structure.[10] This was to absorb directly appointed civilian experts needed in the rapidly expanding Navy. A seaman would typically be known as a specialist followed by a letter indicating what field the specialty was held. For instance, a Specialist (C) served as a "classification interviewer," while a Specialist (T) was a "navy teacher," among several other specialist designations.The concept was first proposed in late 1941 and was approved by the Secretary of the Navy sometime in November or December of that year. The Navy started with four specialties in February 1942, expanding to twenty-two specialties and their associated sub-specialties by the war's end in 1945. The Coast Guard added an additional five exclusive specialties in 1943 (D, CW, PR, PS and TR); four were awarded double letters to avoid duplication. The WAVES added Specialist (U) for "Utility" - a general purpose title that was abolished in 1944 and merged with the similar Specialist (X), for "Specialist (Not Elsewhere Classified)".The trade badge was an embroidered diamond-shaped border inset with the specialty letter and set between the US Navy Eagle and the rank chevrons. Specialists 3rd, 2nd, and 1st Class (Grades 4, 3, and 2; equivalent to Petty Officers 3rd, 2nd and 1st Class) had 1 to 3 downward red chevrons. A Chief Specialist (Grade 1; equivalent to a Chief Petty Officer) had the US Navy Eagle perched on a red rocker over three red chevrons, with the diamond trade badge inset between the stripes.Specialties (1942–1948)[11][edit]Specialist A: Athletic Instructor, Physical Training InstructorSpecialist C: Classification InterviewerSpecialist CW: Chemical Warfareman (USCG)Specialist D: Dog Handler (USCG), Horse Handler (USCG), Dog Patrol (USCG)Specialist E: Recreation and Welfare Assistant, Motion Picture Service BookerSpecialist F: Fire FighterSpecialist G: Gunnery Instructor, Aviation Free Gunnery Instructor, Anti-Aircraft Gunnery InstructorSpecialist I: I.B.M. Operator, Punch Card Accounting Machine OperatorSpecialist M: Mail ClerkSpecialist O: Inspector of Naval MaterialSpecialist P: Photographic Specialist, Motion Picture Technician, Photo Laboratory Specialist, Photogrammetry SpecialistSpecialist PR: Public Relations (USCG)Specialist PS: Port Security Patrolman (USCG)Specialist Q: Communications Specialist, Cryptologist, Cryptanalyst, Radio Intelligence Technician, Registered Publications ClerkSpecialist R: RecruiterSpecialist S: Entertainer [1942], Shore Patrol and Security [1943–1948], Master-at-Arms (WAVE), Personnel Supervisor (WAVE)Specialist T: Teacher, InstructorSpecialist TR: Transportationman (USCG)Specialist U: Utility (WAVE) [1943], Stewardess (WAVE) [1943]Specialist V: Transport AirmanSpecialist W: Chaplain's AssistantSpecialist X: Specialist (Not Elsewhere Classified) [1943–1948]. Air Station Operations, Artist, Cartographer, Intelligence, Key Punch Operator, Pigeon Trainer, Plastics Expert, Public Information, Special Projects, Strategic Services (OSS), Switchboard Operator, Topographic Draftsman, Visual Training Aids.Specialist Y: Control Tower OperatorEmergency Service ratings (1948–1974)[edit]The Navy's use of the specialist grade was reorganized in 1948 to integrate them into the petty officer structure. The assigned letters and job titles changed several times in the rank's history.Some positions were reclassified as Emergency Service Ratings (ESRs) from 1948 to 1957 and Emergency Ratings (ERs) from 1957 to 1965. All personnel holding an Emergency Service rating were members of the Naval Reserve subject to activation only in time of war or national emergency. Their specialty letters had a prefix of "ES" added and were different than that of those in regular service.A pruning and absorption or discontinuing of specialty ratings commenced between 1957 and 1964 and nearly all of the remaining specialties were discontinued in 1965. The sole remaining specialty was ESK (ES Specialty (K) - "Telecommunications Censorship Technician"). It was renamed "Information Security Specialist" in 1972 and disestablished in 1974.Short History of the Specialist RankBy CSM Dan ElderWhen Washington assumed the role as Commander in Chief ofthe fledgling Continental Army in 1775, it had adopted theBritish model of organization. There were basically fourenlisted grades, sergeants, corporal, musicians andprivates. The musicians were fifers and drummers, who ofcourse directed the linear movements of the Army. If thesergeants, corporals and privates were the combatants, itcould be a stretch to argue that those musicians were theArmy’s first “specialists.” Though no special rankinsignia signified enlisted soldiers of that era,Washington directed that sergeants and corporals would wearepaulettes sewn on their right shoulder, red for sergeantsand green for corporals.During the winter of 1776-1777, Washington ordered theestablishment of three artillery regiments. In the Army’s1967 comprehensive Enlisted Grade Structure Study noted,“Artillerymen were recognized as specialists from the startand were given higher pay than Infantryman.” It also noteda need for other “specialists” in the enlisted ranks toperform certain technical skills for the artillery. Duringthis period service and support tasks were typicallyperformed by civilians or detailed enlisted soldiers fromthe line. When Gen Washington ordered the formation ofthree artillery regiments, he directed one regiment to be“artificers” to be employed in performing “essentialspecialist services” for the other two. These men were tobe later known as “enlisted men of Ordnance” instead ofartillerymen. The artificers included carpenters,blacksmiths, wheelwrights, turners, tinmen, harness makersand farriers.In 1777 the Congress noted the need for a “slightlydifferent organization” in providing a regiment of Cavalry.The regimental staff was organized with a saddler, and atrumpet major, and each company had a trumpeter and afarrier.The famous “Blue Book” by MG Freidrich von Steuben,published in 1779, listed duties of many of the criticalpositions within the company and regiment, and includedspecific details on the “Quartermaster” sergeant. Hisduties included the “regimental baggage” and wagons on themarch.This document was downloaded from Short History of the Specialist RankBy CSM Dan ElderWhen the Army was reduced after the war and the artilleryregiments were disbanded, artificers were incorporated into the line where they were needed. Artificers were“accorded pay higher than that of sergeant majors andquartermaster sergeants.”During the War of 1812 the enlisted grade had remained thesame since the Revolution. Besides the troops of the line,there were “groups of specialists” in fields such asmedical, engineer, ordnance and quartermaster. For thefirst time, special insignia and uniforms were authorizedfor the specialists, who were formed into a Corps under theQuartermaster. Specialists normally received higher paythan their counterparts in the standard organization.In 1821 Gen. Winfield Scott introduced the first generalregulation and established appointments for enlistedsoldiers and noncoms, and included a new system of“distinguishing the various grades” of NCOs andspecialists. This insignia replaced collar epaulettes withchevrons on the sleeves of the coat. In 1832 the Armyestablished four specialist grades in the Ordnancedepartment—-master workman, armorers, carriage makers andblacksmith, and laborers. Ordnance sergeants receivedhigher pay and were allowed special insignia.During the Civil War a trend developed that was to fit thevarious specialists into the standard rank structure whilepreserving the special pay and allowances required, to drawmen with these specialty skills. Thus, the pay scale wasinflated and by War’s end in 1865, there were 29 enlistedcategories, yet only eight types of insignia of grade, ofwhich six were for NCOs of the line, the remaining two werehospital steward and pioneer.By the time the Army entered the War with Spain in 1898,the rank structure remained as it had been in the CivilWar, though the pay scales were reduced in 1871. However,it was during this period that “specialist’s insignia” wereadded. The stripes resembled the “point-down” chevrons ofthe Civil War, but included a symbol denoting thespecialty, such as a bugle for musicians, a key and quillfor quartermaster and a saddlers knife for the saddlersergeant.During the early portions of the 20th Century there was anoticeable uncontrolled proliferation of enlisted grades.This document was downloaded from Short History of the Specialist RankBy CSM Dan ElderBy May 1908 the Army had 52 different ranks and titles andby 1916 there were 60. Of the different ranks, over 13%were specialists from the technical, administrative,scientific craftsmen and laborer fields.At the end of the first World War, Congress set out toimprove the enlisted grade structure. In June 1920 itprescribed seven standard grades in which all enlisted menwould be grouped and established a large number ofspecialist positions in lower grades that carriedadditional pay without additional rank. However therecontinued to be difficulty in identifying noncommissionedofficers who were leaders and those who were seniorspecialists. This caused concern among the combat NCOs ofthe infantry and other arms. Also, in some cases privateswith specialties could earn more than certain regularnoncommissioned officers. This new structure remained inaffect until the beginning of WWII.As the Army expanded for WWII a need for enlisted soldierswith specialized technical skills was apparent, mostlynoted in the Army Air Corps. To simply the system,technicians were picked from various grades and givenchevrons marked with a “T” in addition to their stripes. Atechnician ranked immediately below a noncom of the samerank, but ahead of a lesser noncom and technicians did notserve in a command role. The increase of technicians causedan inflation of the NCO ranks of WWII. This lasted until1948, when the Army dropped the “T” designation and theywere appointed an NCO in the same grade. To recognizecombat leader NCOs from technicians, the stripes were ofdifferent colors or backgrounds. The transition caused alopsided structure between the number of privates and NCOs.Coupled with the top-heavy force and the reduced moral ofthe combat NCOs, who had earned their stripes over manyyears, caused a perceived loss of prestige.In 1951 all enlisted insignia were standardized to onecolor, further demoralizing combat leaders. The Armyentered the Korean War with NCOs making up over 32% of theenlisted force. In 1953 a committee was formed to addressthe perceived decline in attractiveness of militaryservice. It recognized that the military must “adoptpolices to restore the prestige of noncommissionedofficers” that would place a “premium on leadership andcommand abilities.” The committee also recommended thatmethods be developed to distinguish between command andThis document was downloaded from Short History of the Specialist RankBy CSM Dan Eldertechnical responsibilities. The Army developed a program toseparate specialists from NCOs, which gave birth to ourcurrent specialist system we now know. This program, whichwent in to effect 1 July 1955, grouped NCO grades E-4 to E7,which had a corresponding specialist position thatmirrored it. These new specialist would wear distinctiveinsignia which is partially still in effect for theSpecialist (E-4/SPC) of today. Noncoms had specialconsiderations not afforded to specialists. Theseconsiderations were not to reduce specialists privileges,but augment privileges and prestige of NCOs. Leadership wasthe NCOs primary roles and so noted. Specialists receivedpay commensurate with his ability.In 1958 the DoD added two additional pay grades to giveenlisted soldiers more opportunities to progress to a fullcareer with additional opportunities for promotion. Thisincluded an addition of two specialist ranks at E-8 and E-9and proficiency pay was incorporated into the pay scales.In 1968 when the Army added the rank of Command SergeantMajor, the specialist ranks at E-8 and E-9 were abolishedwithout anyone ever being promoted to those levels. In 1978the specialist rank at E-7 was discontinued and in 1985,the specialist ranks at E-5 and E-6 were discontinued.Today’s current rank structure only includes one specialistrank, that at E-4. The Specialist is in the normal careerprogression for enlisted soldiers in between the careerpath of going from an apprentice enlisted soldier, to thejourneymen role associated with noncommissioned officers.There is no current method to identify senior enlistedspecialists from those NCOs in a leadership position.This document was downloaded from The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution, Article 2, Section 2, Clause 1 and United States Code, Title 10, Subtitle B, Chapter 301, Section 3001. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence,[8] the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed (14 June 1775) to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country.[9] After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army.[10][11] The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.[9]As a uniformed military service, the U.S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, which is one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The U.S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army (SECARMY) and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It is the largest military branch, and in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army (USA) was 476,000 soldiers; the Army National Guard (ARNG) had 343,000 soldiers and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) had 199,000 soldiers; the combined-component strength of the U.S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers.[4] As a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U.S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, sustained, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders".[12] The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States.Contents  [hide] 1 Mission2 History2.1 Origins2.2 19th century2.2.1 Early wars on the Frontier2.2.2 American Civil War2.2.3 Later 19th century2.3 20th century2.3.1 World wars2.3.2 Cold War2.3.2.1 1945–19602.3.2.2 1960–19702.3.2.3 1970–19902.3.3 1990s2.4 21st century3 Organization3.1 Army components3.2 Army commands and army service component commands3.3 Structure3.4 Combat maneuver organizations3.5 Special operations forces4 Personnel4.1 Commissioned officers4.2 Warrant officers4.3 Enlisted personnel4.4 Training5 Equipment5.1 Weapons5.2 Vehicles5.3 Uniforms5.3.1 Berets5.4 Tents5.5 3D printing6 See also7 Notes and references8 Further reading9 External linksMission[edit]The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U.S. Code defines the purpose of the army as:[13][14]Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United StatesSupporting the national policiesImplementing the national objectivesOvercoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesHistory[edit]Main article: History of the United States ArmyThis article or section may need to be cleaned up or summarized because it has been split from/to History of the United States Army.Origins[edit]Storming of Redoubt No. 10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted the British government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and British recognition of the United States of AmericaThe Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress[15] as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander.[9][16][17][18] The army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources and military thinking influenced the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills.The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, sometimes used the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, hitting where the British were weakest to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British.After the war, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The Regular Army was at first very small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, which was established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796.19th century[edit]Early wars on the Frontier[edit]Further information: Army on the FrontierGeneral Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders during the defense of New Orleans, the final major and most one-sided battle of the War of 1812The War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results. The U.S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U.S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U.S.victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U.S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, which was defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the previously rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed (but not ratified), Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, and became a national hero. U.S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane, Levant and Penguin in the final engagements of the war. Per the treaty, both sides (the United States and Great Britain) returned to the geographical status quo. Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict.The army's major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars (1818–1858) to finally defeat the Seminoles and move them to Oklahoma. The usual strategy in Indian wars was to seize control of the Indians' winter food supply, but that was no use in Florida where there was no winter. The second strategy was to form alliances with other Indian tribes, but that too was useless because the Seminoles had destroyed all the other Indians when they entered Florida in the late eighteenth century.[19]The U.S. Army fought and won the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), which was a defining event for both countries.[20] The U.S. victory resulted in acquisition of territory that eventually became all or parts of the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico.American Civil War[edit]Further information: Union ArmyThe Battle of Gettysburg, the turning point of the American Civil WarThe American Civil War was the costliest war for the U.S. in terms of casualties. After most slave states, located in the southern U.S., formed the Confederate States, the Confederate States Army, led by former U.S. Army officers, mobilized a large fraction of Southern white manpower. Forces of the United States (the "Union" or "the North") formed the Union Army, consisting of a small body of regular army units and a large body of volunteer units raised from every state, north and south, except South Carolina.[21]For the first two years Confederate forces did well in set battles but lost control of the border states.[22] The Confederates had the advantage of defending a large territory in an area where disease caused twice as many deaths as combat. The Union pursued a strategy of seizing the coastline, blockading the ports, and taking control of the river systems. By 1863, the Confederacy was being strangled. Its eastern armies fought well, but the western armies were defeated one after another until the Union forces captured New Orleans in 1862 along with the Tennessee River. In the Vicksburg Campaign of 1862–1863, General Ulysses Grant seized the Mississippi River and cut off the Southwest. Grant took command of Union forces in 1864 and after a series of battles with very heavy casualties, he had General Robert E. Lee under siege in Richmond as General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta and marched through Georgia and the Carolinas. The Confederate capital was abandoned in April 1865 and Lee subsequently surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House. All other Confederate armies surrendered within a few months.The war remains the deadliest conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 soldiers. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6.4% in the North and 18% in the South.[23]Later 19th century[edit]Army soldiers in 1890Following the Civil War, the U.S. Army had the mission of containing western tribes of Native Americans on the Indian reservations. They set up many forts, and engaged in the last of the American Indian Wars. U.S. Army troops also occupied several Southern states during the Reconstruction Era to protect freedmen.The key battles of the Spanish–American War of 1898 were fought by the Navy. Using mostly new volunteers, the U.S. Army defeated Spain in land campaigns in Cuba and played the central role in the Philippine–American War.20th century[edit]U.S. Army troops assault a German bunker, France, c. 1918Starting in 1910, the army began acquiring fixed-wing aircraft.[24] In 1910, Mexico was having a civil war, peasant rebels fighting government soldiers. The army was deployed to American towns near the border to ensure safety to lives and property. In 1916, Pancho Villa, a major rebel leader, attacked Columbus, New Mexico, prompting a U.S. intervention in Mexico until 7 February 1917. They fought the rebels and the Mexican federal troops until 1918.World wars[edit]For a list of campaigns see List of United States Army campaigns during World War IIThe United States joined World War I in 1917 on the side of Britain, France, Russia, Italy and other allies. U.S. troops were sent to the Western Front and were involved in the last offensives that ended the war. With the armistice in November 1918, the army once again decreased its forces.American soldiers hunt Japanese infiltrators during the Bougainville CampaignThe United States joined World War II in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. On the European front, U.S. Army troops formed a significant portion of the forces that captured North Africa and Sicily and later fought in Italy. On D-Day 6 June 1944 and in the subsequent liberation of Europe and defeat of Nazi Germany, millions of U.S. Army troops played a central role. In the Pacific War, U.S. Army soldiers participated alongside the United States Marine Corps in capturing the Pacific Islands from Japanese control. Following the Axis surrenders in May (Germany) and August (Japan) of 1945, army troops were deployed to Japan and Germany to occupy the two defeated nations. Two years after World War II, the Army Air Forces separated from the army to become the United States Air Force in September 1947. In 1948, the army was desegregated by order of President Harry S. Truman.Cold War[edit]1945–1960[edit]U.S. Army soldiers look on an atomic bomb test of Operation Buster-Jangle at the Nevada Test Site during the Korean War.The end of World War II set the stage for the East–West confrontation known as the Cold War. With the outbreak of the Korean War, concerns over the defense of Western Europe rose. Two corps, V and VII, were reactivated under Seventh United States Army in 1950 and American strength in Europe rose from one division to four. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops remained stationed in West Germany, with others in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, until the 1990s in anticipation of a possible Soviet attack.[25]:minute 9:00-10:00During the Cold War, American troops and their allies fought communist forces in Korea and Vietnam. The Korean War began in 1950, when the Soviets walked out of a U.N. Security Council meeting, removing their possible veto. Under a United Nations umbrella, hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops fought to prevent the takeover of South Korea by North Korea and later to invade the northern nation. After repeated advances and retreats by both sides and the Chinese People's Volunteer Army's entry into the war, the Korean Armistice Agreement returned the peninsula to the status quo in 1953.1960–1970[edit]The Vietnam War is often regarded as a low point for the U.S. Army due to the use of drafted personnel, the unpopularity of the war with the American public and frustrating restrictions placed on the military by American political leaders. While American forces had been stationed in the Republic of Vietnam since 1959, in intelligence and advising/training roles, they were not deployed in large numbers until 1965, after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. American forces effectively established and maintained control of the "traditional" battlefield, but they struggled to counter the guerrilla hit and run tactics of the communist Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army. On a tactical level, American soldiers (and the U.S. military as a whole) did not lose a sizable battle.[26]A U.S. Army infantry patrol moves up to assault the last North Vietnamese Army position at Dak To, South Vietnam during Operation HawthorneDuring the 1960s, the Department of Defense continued to scrutinize the reserve forces and to question the number of divisions and brigades as well as the redundancy of maintaining two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.[27] In 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara decided that 15 combat divisions in the Army National Guard were unnecessary and cut the number to eight divisions (one mechanized infantry, two armored, and five infantry), but increased the number of brigades from seven to 18 (one airborne, one armored, two mechanized infantry and 14 infantry). The loss of the divisions did not sit well with the states. Their objections included the inadequate maneuver element mix for those that remained and the end to the practice of rotating divisional commands among the states that supported them. Under the proposal, the remaining division commanders were to reside in the state of the division base. However, no reduction in total Army National Guard strength was to take place, which convinced the governors to accept the plan. The states reorganized their forces accordingly between 1 December 1967 and 1 May 1968.1970–1990[edit]U.S. Army soldiers prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City during the United States invasion of PanamaThe Total Force Policy was adopted by Chief of Staff of the Army General Creighton Abrams in the aftermath of the Vietnam War and involves treating the three components of the army – the Regular Army, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve as a single force.[28] Believing that no U.S. President should be able to take the United States (and more specifically the U.S. Army) to war without the support of the American people, General Abrams intertwined the structure of the three components of the army in such a way as to make extended operations impossible, without the involvement of both the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.[29]The 1980s was mostly a decade of reorganization. The army converted to an all-volunteer force with greater emphasis on training and technology. The Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 created unified combatant commands bringing the army together with the other four military services under unified, geographically organized command structures. The army also played a role in the invasions of Grenada in 1983 (Operation Urgent Fury) and Panama in 1989 (Operation Just Cause).By 1989 Germany was nearing reunification and the Cold War was coming to a close. Army leadership reacted by starting to plan for a reduction in strength. By November 1989 Pentagon briefers were laying out plans to reduce army end strength by 23%, from 750,000 to 580,000.[30] A number of incentives such as early retirement were used.1990s[edit]M1 Abrams move out before the Battle of Al Busayyah during the Gulf WarIn 1990, Iraq invaded its smaller neighbor, Kuwait, and U.S. land forces quickly deployed to assure the protection of Saudi Arabia. In January 1991 Operation Desert Storm commenced, a U.S.-led coalition which deployed over 500,000 troops, the bulk of them from U.S. Army formations, to drive out Iraqi forces. The campaign ended in total victory, as Western coalition forces routed the Iraqi Army. Some of the largest tank battles in history were fought during the Gulf war. The Battle of Medina Ridge, Battle of Norfolk and the Battle of 73 Easting were tank battles of historical significance.[31][32][33]After Operation Desert Storm, the army did not see major combat operations for the remainder of the 1990s but did participate in a number of peacekeeping activities. In 1990 the Department of Defense issued guidance for "rebalancing" after a review of the Total Force Policy,[34] but in 2004, Air War College scholars concluded the guidance would reverse the Total Force Policy which is an "essential ingredient to the successful application of military force."[35]21st century[edit]Army Rangers take part in a raid during operation in Nahr-e Saraj, AfghanistanOn 11 September 2001, 53 Army civilians (47 employees and six contractors) and 22 soldiers were among the 125 victims killed in the Pentagon in a terrorist attack when American Airlines Flight 77 commandeered by five Al-Qaeda hijackers slammed into the western side of the building, as part of the September 11 attacks.[36] Lieutenant General Timothy Maude was the highest-ranking military official killed at the Pentagon and the most senior U.S. Army officer killed by foreign action since the death of Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner Jr. on 18 June 1945 in the Battle of Okinawa during World War II.[37]U.S. Army soldiers with 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division return fire during a firefight with Taliban forces in Barawala Kalay Valley in Kunar province, Afghanistan, March 2011In response to the 11 September attacks and as part of the Global War on Terror, U.S. and NATO forces invaded Afghanistan in October 2001, displacing the Taliban government. The U.S. Army also led the combined U.S. and allied invasion of Iraq in 2003. It served as the primary source for ground forces with its ability to sustain short and long-term deployment operations. In the following years, the mission changed from conflict between regular militaries to counterinsurgency, resulting in the deaths of more than 4,000 U.S service members (as of March 2008) and injuries to thousands more.[38][39] 23,813 insurgents[40] were killed in Iraq between 2003–2011.Until 2009, the army's chief modernization plan, its most ambitious since World War II,[41] was the FCS program. In 2009, many systems were canceled and the remaining were swept into the BCT modernization program.[42] In response to Budget sequestration in 2013, the army is planned to shrink to a size not seen since the World War II buildup.[43] From 2016 to 2017, the army retired hundreds of OH-58 Kiowa Warrior observation helicopters without an adequate successor.[44] The 2015 expenditure for Army research, development and acquisition changed from $32 billion projected in 2012 for FY15 to $21 billion for FY15 expected in 2014.[45] By 2017, the Brigade Modernization project was completed and its headquarters, the Brigade Modernization Command, was renamed the Joint Modernization Command, or JMC, to reflect its evolving mission at TRADOC.[46] (TRADOC is the Army Command whose mission is to define the architecture and organization of the Army, to train and supply soldiers to FORSCOM and to design hardware, as well as to define materiel for AMC).[47]:minutes 2:30-15:00[25]Organization[edit]Main article: Structure of the United States ArmyOrganization chart[48]Army components[edit]U.S. general officers, World War II, EuropeThe task of organizing the U.S. Army commenced in 1775.[49] In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works. During times of war, the U.S. Army was augmented by the much larger United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments. States also maintained full-time militias which could also be called into the service of the army.By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army had mobilized the U.S. Volunteers on four separate occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. During World War I, the "National Army" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S. Volunteers.[50] It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps and the State Militias. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed.[51]In 1941, the "Army of the United States" was founded to fight World War II. The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve. The Army of the United States was re-established for the Korean War and Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the draft.[51]Currently, the Army is divided into the Regular Army, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard.[50] Some states further maintain state defense forces, as a type of reserve to the National Guard, while all states maintain regulations for state militias.[52] State militias are both "organized", meaning that they are armed forces usually part of the state defense forces, or "unorganized" simply meaning that all able bodied males may be eligible to be called into military service. The unorganized militia has never been activated in the history of the United States, and by law this would only be done in the event of an extreme national emergency, such as a mainland invasion of the United States.[53]The U.S. Army is also divided into several branches and functional areas. Branches include officers, warrant officers, and enlisted Soldiers while functional areas consist of officers who are reclassified from their former branch into a functional area. However, officers continue to wear the branch insignia of their former branch in most cases, as functional areas do not generally have discrete insignia. Some branches, such as Special Forces, operate similarly to functional areas in that individuals may not join their ranks until having served in another Army branch.U.S. Army branches and functional areasBranch Insignia Branch Insignia Functional Area (FA)Acquisition Corps (AC) Acquisition-Corps-Branch-In.png Air Defense Artillery (AD) USAADA-BRANCH.svg Information Network Engineering (FA 26)Adjutant General's Corps (AG)Includes Army Bands (AB) AdjGenBC.svgArmyBand Collar Brass.PNG Armor (AR)Includes Cavalry (CV) Armor-Branch-Insignia.pngUS-Cavalry-Branch-Insignia.png Electronic Warfare Officer (FA 29)Aviation (AV) US Army Aviation Branch Insignia.svg Civil Affairs Corps (CA) USA - Civil Affairs.png Information Operations (FA 30)Chaplain Corps (CH) ChristChaplainBC.gifJewishChaplainBC.gifBuddhistChaplainBC.gifHindu Faith Branch Insignia.jpgMuslimChaplainBC.gifChaplainAsstBC.gif Strategic Intelligence (FA 34)Chemical Corps (CM) Chemical Branch Insignia.svg Cyber Corps (CY) US Army Cyber Branch Insignia.png Space Operations (FA 40)Dental Corps (DC) USA - Army Medical Dental.png Corps of Engineers (EN) USA - Engineer Branch Insignia.png Public Affairs Officer (FA 46)Electronic Warfare (EW) USA - Electronic Warfare Insignia.png Field Artillery (FA) USA - Army Field Artillery Insignia.png Academy Professor (FA 47)Finance Corps (FI) USA - Army Finance Corps.png Infantry (IN) USA - Army Infantry Insignia.png Foreign Area Officer (FA 48)Judge Advocate General's Corps (JA) JAGC Staff Corps Insignia Army.gif Logistics (LG) USA - Logistics Branch Insignia.png Operations Research/Systems Analysis (FA 49)Medical Corps (MC) USA - Army Medical Corps.png Military Intelligence Corps (MI) MI Corps Insignia.svg Force Management (FA 50)Military Police Corps (MP) USAMPC-Branch-Insignia.png Medical Service Corps (MS) USA - Army Medical Specialist Corps.png Acquisition (FA 51)Medical Specialist Corps (SP) USA - Army Medical Specialist.png Army Nurse Corps (AN) USA - Army Medical Nurse.png Simulation Operations (FA 57)Ordnance Corps (OD) Ordnance Branch Insignia.svg Psychological Operations (PO) USA - Psych Ops Branch Insignia.png Health Services (FA 70)Public Affairs (PA) PublicAffairsBC.svg Quartermaster Corps (QM) USA - Quartermaster Corps Branch Insignia.png Laboratory Sciences (FA 71)Signal Corps (SC) Insignia signal.svg Special Forces (SF) USA - Special Forces Branch Insignia.png Preventive Medicine Sciences (FA 72)Transportation Corps (TC) USA - Transportation Corps Branch Insignia.png Veterinary Corps (VC) USA - Army Medical Veterinary.png Behavioral Sciences (FA 73)Before 1903, members of the National Guard were considered state soldiers unless federalized (i.e., activated) by the President. Since the Militia Act of 1903, all National Guard soldiers have held dual status: as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and when activated as a reserve of the U.S. Army under the authority of the President.Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations. For example, Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War, peacekeeping in Kosovo, Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.Army commands and army service component commands[edit]Headquarters US Army SSI.png Headquarters, United States Department of the Army (HQDA):Army Commands Current commander Location of headquartersUnited States Army Forces Command SSI.svg United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) GEN Robert B. Abrams Fort Bragg, North CarolinaAMC shoulder insignia.svg United States Army Materiel Command (AMC) GEN Gustave F. Perna Redstone Arsenal, AlabamaTRADOC patch.svg United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) GEN David G. Perkins Fort Eustis, VirginiaArmy Service Component Commands Current commander Location of headquartersU.S. Army Africa Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.jpg United States Army Africa (USARAF)/Ninth Army/United States Army Southern European Task Force[54] BG Eugene J. LeBoeuf, Acting[55] [56][57][58] Caserma Ederle, Vicenza, ItalyUnited States Army Central CSIB.svg United States Army Central (ARCENT)/Third Army LTG Michael X. Garrett[59] Shaw Air Force Base, South CarolinaUSAREUR Insignia.svg United States Army Europe (USAREUR)/Seventh Army (U.S.) LTG Ben Hodges Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, GermanyUnited States Army North CSIB.svg United States Army North (ARNORTH)/Fifth Army LTG Jeffrey S. Buchanan Joint Base San Antonio, TexasUSARPAC insignia.svg United States Army Pacific (USARPAC) GEN Robert B. Brown Fort Shafter, HawaiiUNITED STATES ARMY SOUTH SSI.svg United States Army South (ARSOUTH)/Sixth Army MG Clarence K.K. Chinn Joint Base San Antonio, TexasSurface Deployment and Distribution Command SSI.svg Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) MG Kurt J. Ryan[60] Scott AFB, IllinoisUS Army Cyber Command SSI.png United States Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER)[61][62][63] LTG Paul Nakasone Fort Belvoir, Virginia[64]United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command Logo.svg United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command/United States Army Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) LTG James H. Dickinson Redstone Arsenal, AlabamaU.S. Army Special Operations Command SSI (1989-2015).svg United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) LTG Kenneth E. Tovo Fort Bragg, North CarolinaOperational Force Headquarters Current commander Location of headquartersEighth United States Army CSIB.svg Eighth Army (EUSA)[65] LTG Thomas S. Vandal[66] Yongsan Garrison, South KoreaDirect reporting units Current commander Location of headquartersArlington National Cemetery Seal.png Arlington National Cemetery and Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery[67] Jack E. Lechner Arlington, VirginiaUnited States Army Marketing and Engagement Brigade (USAMEB)[68] COL Brian M. Cavanaugh Fort Knox, KentuckyUS Army Acquisition Support Center SSI.png United States Army Acquisition Support Center (USASC)[69] Craig A. Spisak Fort Belvoir, VirginiaUS Army Civilain Human Resources Agnecy seal.png United States Army Civilian Human Resources Agency (CHRA)[70] Barbara P. Panther Washington, D.C.USACE.gif United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) LTG Todd T. Semonite[71] Washington, D.C.Cid patch color.jpg United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) MG Mark S. Inch Quantico, VirginiaUnited States Army Financial Management Command (USAFMC) BG David C. Coburn Indianapolis, Indiana[72]US Army HRC SSI.png United States Army Human Resources Command (HRC)[73] MG Jason T. Evans Alexandria, VirginiaUnited States Army Installation Management Command Shoulder Patch.png United States Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) LTG Kenneth R. Dahl Joint Base San Antonio, TexasINSCOM.svg United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) MG Christopher S. Ballard Fort Belvoir, VirginiaMEDCOM.png United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) LTG Nadja West Joint Base San Antonio, TexasUnited States Army Military District of Washington CSIB.svg United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW) MG Michael L. Howard Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.US Army Recruiting Command SSI.png United States Army Recruiting Command (USAREC)[74] MG Jeffrey J. Snow Fort Knox, KentuckyUnited States Army Test and Evaluation Command SSI.png United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) MG Peter D. Utley Alexandria, VirginiaUS Army War College SSI.png United States Army War College (AWC)[75] MG John S. Kem Carlisle, PennsylvaniaUSMA SSI.png United States Military Academy (USMA) LTG Robert L. Caslen West Point, New YorkSource: U.S. Army organization[76]Structure[edit]Main article: Transformation of the United States ArmySee Structure of the United States Army for detailed treatment of the history, components, administrative and operational structure and the branches and functional areas of the Army.U.S. Army soldiers of 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry Regiment, Maryland Army National Guard conduct an urban cordon and search exercise as part of the army readiness and training evaluation program in the mock city of Balad at Fort Dix, New JerseyU.S. soldiers from the 6th Infantry Regiment taking up positions on a street corner during a foot patrol in Ramadi, IraqThe U.S. Army is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army; and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month – known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs) – and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code, while the National Guard is organized under Title 32. While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors. However, the District of Columbia National Guard reports to the U.S. President, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized. Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes.[77]The U.S. Army is led by a civilian Secretary of the Army, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the Secretary of Defense.[78] The Chief of Staff of the Army, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the Secretary of the Army, i.e., its service chief; and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense and the National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[79][80] In 1986, the Goldwater–Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the unified combatant commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility, thus the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components. The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the Secretary of Defense.[81]The 1st Cavalry Division's combat aviation brigade performs a mock charge with the horse detachmentBy 2013, the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands (COCOM):United States Army Central headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base, South CarolinaUnited States Army North headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, TexasUnited States Army South headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, TexasUnited States Army Europe headquartered at Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, GermanyUnited States Army Pacific headquartered at Fort Shafter, HawaiiUnited States Army Africa headquartered at Vicenza, ItalyU.S. Army Special Forces soldiers from the 3rd Special Forces Group patrol a field in the Gulistan district of Farah, AfghanistanThe army also transformed its base unit from divisions to brigades. Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. As specified before the 2013 end-strength re-definitions, the three major types of ground combat brigades are:Armored brigades, with strength of 4,743 troops as of 2014.Stryker brigades, with strength of 4,500 troops as of 2014.Infantry brigades, with strength of 4,413 troops as of 2014.In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades. Combat support brigades include aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, fires (artillery) brigades (now transforms to division artillery) and battlefield surveillance brigades. Combat service support brigades include sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army.Combat maneuver organizations[edit]To track the effects of the 2018 budget cuts, see Transformation of the United States Army#Divisions and BrigadesThe U.S. Army currently consists of 10 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters (7th Infantry Division) as well as several independent units. The force is in the process of contracting after several years of growth. In June 2013, the Army announced plans to downsize to 32 active combat brigade teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active duty strength to 490,000 soldiers. Army Chief of Staff Raymond Odierno projected that the Army was to shrink to "450,000 in the active component, 335,000 in the National Guard and 195,000 in U.S. Army Reserve" by 2018.[82] However, this plan was scrapped by the new administration and now the Army plans to grow by 16,000 soldiers to a total of 476,000 by October 2017. The National Guard and the Army Reserve will see a smaller expansion.[83][84]Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve there are a further 8 divisions, over 15 maneuver brigades, additional combat support and combat service support brigades and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer and support battalions. The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units.United States Army Forces Command SSI.svg United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)Direct reporting units Current commander Location of headquartersU.S. I Corps CSIB.svg I Corps LTG Gary J. Volesky Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington3 Corps Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg III Corps LTG Paul E. Funk II Fort Hood, TexasXVIII Airborne Corps CSIB.svg XVIII Airborne Corps LTG Stephen J. Townsend Fort Bragg, North Carolina1st Army.svg First Army (FUSA)[85] LTG Stephen Twitty Rock Island Arsenal, IllinoisUS Army Reserve Command SSI.svg United States Army Reserve Command (USARC)[86] LTG Charles D. Luckey Fort Bragg, North CarolinaCombat maneuver units aligned under FORSCOMName Headquarters Subunits Subordinate toUnited States Army 1st Armored Division CSIB.svg1st Armored Division Fort Bliss, Texas 1 Stryker Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 2 armored BCTs, 1 Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 1 Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB) and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps1 Cav Shoulder Insignia.svg1st Cavalry Division Fort Hood, Texas 3 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade III CorpsU.S. Army 1st Infantry Division SSI (1918-2015).svg 1st Infantry Division Fort Riley, Kansas 2 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps3dACRSSI.PNG3d Cavalry Regiment Fort Hood, Texas 4 Stryker squadrons, 1 fires squadron, 1 engineer squadron and 1 support squadron (overseen by the 1st Cavalry Division)[87] III CorpsUnited States Army 3rd Infantry Division SSI (1918-2015).svg3rd Infantry Division Fort Stewart, Georgia 2 armored BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 48th Infantry Brigade Combat Team of the Georgia Army National Guard XVIII Airborne Corps4th Infantry Division CSIB.svg4th Infantry Division Fort Carson, Colorado 1 infantry BCT, 1 Stryker BCT, 1 armored BCT, DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps7th Infantry Division SSI (1973-2015).svg7th Infantry Division Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington Administrative control of 2 Stryker BCTs and 1 DIVARTY of the 2nd Infantry Division as well as the 81st Stryker Brigade Combat Team of the Washington and California Army National Guard I CorpsShoulder sleeve insignia of the 10th Mountain Division (1944-2015).svg10th Mountain Division Fort Drum, New York 2 infantry BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Mountain) of the Vermont Army National Guard XVIII Airborne Corps82 ABD SSI.svg82nd Airborne Division Fort Bragg, North Carolina 3 airborne infantry BCTs, 1 airborne DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 airborne sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne CorpsUS 101st Airborne Division patch.svg101st Airborne Division Fort Campbell, Kentucky 3 air assault infantry BCTs, 1 air assault DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne CorpsCombat maneuver units aligned under other organizationsName Headquarters Subunits Subordinate toUS 2nd Cavalry Regiment SSI.jpg2nd Cavalry Regiment Rose Barracks, Vilseck, Germany 4 Stryker squadrons, 1 engineer squadron, 1 fires squadron and 1 support squadron U.S. Army Europe2nd Infantry Division SSI (1942-201

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